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Adv Pharmacol. 2018;83:155-190. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2018.03.002.

Pharmacogenetics of Adverse Drug Reactions.

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Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Electronic address:


Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors predispose to many ADRs, affecting susceptibility to both type A and type B reactions. The overall contribution of genetics will vary according to drug and ADR, and should be considered when attempting to predict and prevent ADRs. Genetic risk factors are considered in detail for a number of type A ADRs, especially those relating to warfarin and thiopurines, and type B ADRs affecting skin, the liver, and the heart. As the availability of whole genome sequencing increases, it is likely that prospective genotype for particular ADRs prior to drug prescription will become more common in the future. Current examples of genetic testing to prevent ADRs which have already been implemented and future prospects for developments in the field are discussed in detail.


Adverse drug reaction; Drug-induced cardiotoxicity; Drug-induced liver injury; Drug-induced skin toxicity; Personalized medicine; Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacovigilance

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