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Psychol Sci. 2018 Jul;29(7):1159-1177. doi: 10.1177/0956797618761661. Epub 2018 May 25.

Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of Gratification and Later Outcomes.

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1 Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University.
2 School of Education, University of California, Irvine.


We replicated and extended Shoda, Mischel, and Peake's (1990) famous marshmallow study, which showed strong bivariate correlations between a child's ability to delay gratification just before entering school and both adolescent achievement and socioemotional behaviors. Concentrating on children whose mothers had not completed college, we found that an additional minute waited at age 4 predicted a gain of approximately one tenth of a standard deviation in achievement at age 15. But this bivariate correlation was only half the size of those reported in the original studies and was reduced by two thirds in the presence of controls for family background, early cognitive ability, and the home environment. Most of the variation in adolescent achievement came from being able to wait at least 20 s. Associations between delay time and measures of behavioral outcomes at age 15 were much smaller and rarely statistically significant.


achievement; behavioral problems; early childhood; gratification delay; longitudinal analysis; marshmallow test; open data

[Available on 2019-05-25]
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