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Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2018 Nov;12(6):1095-1100. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.05.004. Epub 2018 May 5.

An update on physical health and economic consequences of overweight and obesity.

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Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam; Institute for Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Danang, Vietnam. Electronic address:
Center for Environment and Health Studies, Thai Binh Medical University, Thai Binh, Vietnam.
Institute for Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Danang, Vietnam.
School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.
College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 8 210095, China.
VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
VINMEC Research Institute of Stem Cell and Gene Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
National Institute of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Department of Biological Function of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10 Str., 10-748, Olsztyn, Poland.
University of Economics and Business, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Faculty of Social Work, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam.
AI Lab, Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Electronic address:


Overweight and obesity (OW and OB) have been on the increase globally and posed health risks to the world's population of all ages, including pre-born babies, children, adolescents, adults and elderly people, via their comorbid conditions. Excellent examples of comorbidities associated with obesity include cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this article, we aimed to review and update scientific evidence regarding the relationships between obesity and its common physical health consequences, including CVD, T2DM, hypertension, ischemic stroke, cancer, dyslipidemia and reproductive disorders. In addition, the economic burden of OW and OB will be discussed. Abundant evidence is found to support the associations between obesity and other diseases. In general, the odd ratios, risk ratios or hazard ratios are often higher in OW and OB people than in the normal-weight ones. However, the molecular mechanism of how OW and OB induce the development of other diseases has not been fully understood. Figures also showed that obesity and its-related disorders exert enormous pressure on the economy which is projected to increase. This review highlights the fact that obesity can lead to numerous lethal health problems; therefore, it requires a lot of economic resources to fight against this epidemic.


Economic burden; Metabolic disorder; Obesity; Overweight; Physical health consequences

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