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Neuroscientist. 2019 Apr;25(2):155-166. doi: 10.1177/1073858418775027. Epub 2018 May 25.

Fluid Dynamics Inside the Brain Barrier: Current Concept of Interstitial Flow, Glymphatic Flow, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in the Brain.

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1 Center for Integrated Human Brain Science, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, Niigata, Japan.
2 Department of Neurology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA.


The discovery of the water specific channel, aquaporin, and abundant expression of its isoform, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), on astrocyte endfeet brought about significant advancements in the understanding of brain fluid dynamics. The brain is protected by barriers preventing free access of systemic fluid. The same barrier system, however, also isolates brain interstitial fluid from the hydro-dynamic effect of the systemic circulation. The systolic force of the heart, an essential factor for proper systemic interstitial fluid circulation, cannot be propagated to the interstitial fluid compartment of the brain. Without a proper alternative mechanism, brain interstitial fluid would stay stagnant. Water influx into the peri-capillary Virchow-Robin space (VRS) through the astrocyte AQP-4 system compensates for this hydrodynamic shortage essential for interstitial flow, introducing the condition virtually identical to systemic circulation, which by virtue of its fenestrated capillaries creates appropriate interstitial fluid motion. Interstitial flow in peri-arterial VRS constitutes an essential part of the clearance system for β-amyloid, whereas interstitial flow in peri-venous VRS creates bulk interstitial fluid flow, which, together with the choroid plexus, creates the necessary ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume for proper CSF circulation.


AQP-4; Virchow-Robin space; aquaporin; choroid plexus; tight junction

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