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Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Jan;56(1):711-721. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1122-9. Epub 2018 May 23.

The Fragile X Protein and Genome Function.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry & Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA. tdockend@utk.edu.
2
Department of Biochemistry & Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA. labrador@utk.edu.

Abstract

The fragile X syndrome (FXS) arises from loss of expression or function of the FMR1 gene and is one of the most common monogenic forms of intellectual disability and autism. During the past two decades of FXS research, the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) has been primarily characterized as a cytoplasmic RNA binding protein that facilitates transport of select RNA substrates through neural projections and regulation of translation within synaptic compartments, with the protein products of such mRNAs then modulating cognitive functions. However, the presence of a small fraction of FMRP in the nucleus has long been recognized. Accordingly, recent studies have uncovered several mechanisms or pathways by which FMRP influences nuclear gene expression and genome function. Some of these pathways appear to be independent of the classical role for FMRP as a regulator of translation and point to novel functions, including the possibility that FMRP directly participates in the DNA damage response and in the maintenance of genome stability. In this review, we highlight these advances and discuss how these new findings could contribute to our understanding of FMRP in brain development and function, the neural pathology of fragile X syndrome, and perhaps impact of future therapeutic considerations.

KEYWORDS:

Chromatin; DNA damage repair; FMRP; Fragile X mental retardation; Genome stability

PMID:
29796988
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-018-1122-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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