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J Biol Rhythms. 1986 Winter;1(4):303-8.

Slow-wave sleep in daytime and nocturnal sleep: an estimate of the time course of "Process S".

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Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.


Daan et al. (1984) have proposed that sleep and wakefulness are regulated, in part, by a "Process S" that increases during wakefulness and declines during sleep. Data derived from several studies were taken to determine the time course of Process S during both wakefulness and sleep. As required by the model, slow-wave-sleep (SWS; an index of Process S) was found to increase exponentially as a function of prior wake time (equation 1) and to decline exponentially as a function of time asleep (equation 2). The equations accounted for 91% and 96% of the variance, respectively. In addition, equation 1 accurately predicted the amount the amount of SWS in the first hour of nocturnal sleep.

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