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Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;15(9):566-577. doi: 10.1038/s41569-018-0026-8.

Interventions to promote cardiometabolic health and slow cardiovascular ageing.

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Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia University Medical School, Brescia, Italy.


Cardiovascular ageing and the atherosclerotic process begin very early in life, most likely in utero. They progress over decades of exposure to suboptimal or abnormal metabolic and hormonal risk factors, eventually culminating in very common, costly, and mostly preventable target-organ pathologies, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and vascular dementia. In this Review, we discuss findings from preclinical and clinical studies showing that calorie restriction (CR), intermittent fasting, and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding, with adequate intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients, are powerful interventions not only for the prevention of cardiovascular disease but also for slowing the accumulation of molecular damage leading to cardiometabolic dysfunction. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms through which a number of other nondietary interventions, such as regular physical activity, mindfulness-based stress-reduction exercises, and some CR-mimetic drugs that target pro-ageing pathways, can potentiate the beneficial effects of a healthy diet in promoting cardiometabolic health.

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