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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Aug;142(2):331-336. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000004551.

Modified Nipple Flap with Free Areolar Graft for Component Nipple-Areola Complex Construction: Outcomes with a Novel Technique for Chest Wall Reconstruction in Transgender Men.

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New York, N.Y. From the Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University Langone Health.



A primary goal in chest wall reconstruction ("top surgery") for trans men is achieving a symmetric, aesthetically pleasing position of the reconstructed male nipple-areola complex.


The senior author's (A.H.) technique for component nipple-areola complex creation in chest wall reconstruction for trans men with a modified skate flap and free areolar graft, in conjunction with double-incision mastectomy, is described. A retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients who underwent primary, bilateral chest wall reconstruction with this technique was undertaken for the period of March of 2015 to October of 2016.


The average patient age was 30.64 years, and the average body mass index was 28.54 kg/m. Eighty-two percent of the sample received preoperative testosterone therapy, and average operative time was 2 hours 59 minutes. Average overall mastectomy specimen weight was 627.80 g, average length of hospital stay was 0.96 days, and average follow-up duration was 19.02 months. Complications occurred in five patients (10 percent), including seroma (4 percent), cellulitis (2 percent), hematoma (2 percent), and suture granuloma (2 percent). Only five patients (10 percent) underwent postoperative revision to adjust nipple-areola complex size, projection, or symmetry. Twenty-eight patients (56 percent) underwent secondary revisions, including scar revisions (56 percent), liposuction (12 percent), and fat grafting (2 percent).


The use of a modified nipple flap and free areola graft in transgender chest wall reconstruction for trans men allows for flexible, component construction of the male nipple-areola complex in a safe and effective manner.


Therapeutic, IV.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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