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Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;47(2):505-522. doi: 10.1159/000489984. Epub 2018 May 22.

Long Noncoding RNA Profiling from Fasciola Gigantica Excretory/Secretory Product-Induced M2 to M1 Macrophage Polarization.

Luo H1,2,3,4, Zhang Y5, Sheng Z5, Luo T1,3,4, Chen J1,3,4, Liu J6,4, Wang H1,3,4, Chen M6,4, Shi Y7, Li L1,3,4.

Author information

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.
Guangxi Key Laboratory for Aquatic Genetic Breeding and Healthy Aquaculture, Guangxi Institute of Fishery Sciences, Nanning, China.
Key Laboratory of High-Incidence-Tumor early Prevention and Treatment, Ministry of Education, Nanning, China.
Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.
Institute of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.
Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.
Institute of parasitic disease prevention and control, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanning, China.

Erratum in



Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are well known regulators of gene expression that play essential roles in macrophage activation and polarization. However, the role of lncRNA in Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory products (ESP)-induced M2 polarization into M1 macrophages is unclear. Herein, we performed lncRNA profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs during the ESP-induced macrophage polarization process.


F. gigantica ESP was used to induce peritoneal cavity M2 macrophages in BALB/c mice (5-6 weeks old) in vivo, and these cells were subsequently isolated and stimulated with IFN-γ + LPS to induce M1 cells in vitro. LncRNA and mRNA profiling was performed via microarray at the end of both polarization stages.


In total, 2,844 lncRNAs (1,579 upregulated and 1,265 downregulated) and 1,782 mRNAs (789 upregulated and 993 downregulated) were differentially expressed in M2 macrophages compared to M1 macrophages, and six lncRNAs were identified during polarization. We selected 34 differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs to validate the results of microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, particularly peptidase activity and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, coding and non-coding gene (CNC) and mRNA-related ceRNA network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of these lncRNAs and mRNAs. Moreover, we determined that four lncRNAs and four mRNAs might participate in F. gigantica ESP-induced M2 polarization into M1 macrophages.


This study illustrates the basic profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs during F. gigantica ESP-induced M2 polarization into M1 macrophages and deepens our understanding of the mechanism underlying this process.


CeRNA; Excretory/secretory products (ESP); Fasciola gigantica; Long non-coding RNA; Macrophage polarization

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