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J Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 13;218(4):546-554. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy197.

The Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines on Genotype Diversity: A Comprehensive Analysis of 2 Decades of Australian Surveillance Data.

Author information

1
Enteric Virus Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
2
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
3
Enteric and Diarrheal Diseases, Global Health, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington.
4
Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville.
5
Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

Background:

Introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs (NIPs) could result in strain selection due to vaccine-induced selective pressure. This study describes the distribution and diversity of rotavirus genotypes before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction into the Australian NIP. State-based vaccine selection facilitated a unique comparison of diversity in RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccine states.

Methods:

From 1995 to 2015, the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program conducted genotypic analysis on 13051 rotavirus-positive samples from children <5 years of age, hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined using serological and heminested multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

Results:

G1P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally in the prevaccine era (1995-2006). Following vaccine introduction (2007-2015), greater genotype diversity was observed with fluctuating genotype dominance. Genotype distribution varied based on the vaccine implemented, with G12P[8] dominant in states using RotaTeq, and equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] dominant in states and territories using Rotarix.

Conclusions:

The increased diversity and differences in genotype dominance observed in states using RotaTeq (G12P[8]), and in states and territories using Rotarix (equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4]), suggest that these vaccines exert different immunological pressures that influence the diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in Australia.

PMID:
29790933
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiy197

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