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Clin Nutr. 2018 May 2. pii: S0261-5614(18)30156-0. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence of malnutrition and impact on clinical outcomes in cancer services: A comparison of two time points.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan St, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Electronic address: kathryn.marshall@mh.org.au.
2
Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan St, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Electronic address: Jenelle.Loeliger@petermac.org.
3
Victorian Government, Department of Health and Human Services, 50 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Electronic address: Linda.NOLTE@austin.org.au.
4
Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan St, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Electronic address: Amber.Kelaart@cancervic.org.au.
5
Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan St, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia; School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: Nicole.Kiss@deakin.edu.au.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The prevention and management of malnutrition is increasingly recognised as a significant element of cancer care. By identifying and comparing cancer malnutrition in two large cross-sectional cancer populations, this study aims to provide a greater understanding of clinical characteristics and trajectories relating to cancer malnutrition.

METHODS:

A multi-centre point prevalence study was conducted in Victoria, Australia at two time points (March 2012, May 2014). Adults with cancer receiving ambulatory chemotherapy, radiotherapy and multi-day inpatients were included. The presence of malnutrition was determined using Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Demographic, clinical information and 30-day outcomes were collected.

RESULTS:

The study included 1677 patients in 2012 (17 sites) and 1913 patients in 2014 (27 sites). Older age, ≥5% weight loss, hospital admission and metastatic disease were factors significantly associated with malnutrition. Patients with upper gastrointestinal, head and neck and lung cancers were more likely to be malnourished. Malnutrition was associated with infection and poor outcomes at 30-days. Malnutrition prevalence reduced from 31% in 2012 to 26% in 2014 (p = 0.002). This reflects a reduction in patients with malnutrition receiving ambulatory chemotherapy, those with upper gastrointestinal or colorectal cancers and those residing in regional areas.

CONCLUSION:

The study has provided a comprehensive description of cancer malnutrition prevalence representative of all treatment settings, tumour types and stages of disease. This provides valuable insight into cancer malnutrition enabling oncology services to identify opportunities to embed identification and prevention strategies into models of care, resulting in improved patient outcomes and reduced health care costs.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer treatment; Chemotherapy; Malnutrition; Outcomes; Weight loss

PMID:
29789167
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.007

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