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Inhal Toxicol. 2018 Mar - Apr;30(4-5):141-148. doi: 10.1080/08958378.2018.1474977. Epub 2018 May 22.

Vitamin C prevents memory impairment induced by waterpipe smoke: role of oxidative stress.

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a Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Jordan University of Science and Technology , Irbid , Jordan.
b Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine , Jordan University of Science and Technology , Irbid , Jordan.
c Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences , Jordan University of Science and Technology , Irbid , Jordan.


Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) was previously shown to be associated with memory deficits, which were related to oxidative stress. Vitamin C (VitC) has established antioxidant properties against memory deficits associated with several diseases and conditions. In this study, the potential protective effect of VitC on memory impairment induced by WTS exposure was evaluated in a rat model. VitC was administered to animals via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks). At the same period, animals were exposed to WTS for one hour/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks. Using radial arm water maze (RAWM), behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the spatial learning and memory. In addition, hippocampal levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed. WTS exposure impaired both short- and long-term memory (p < .05). On the other hand, VitC protected memory impairment induced by WTS (p < .05). Moreover, VitC prevented the reduction in hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG (p < .05) induced by WTS. Furthermore, WTS reduced hippocampus activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, which were also normalized by VitC treatment. However, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were not changed by WTS and/or by VitC (p > .05). In conclusion, WTS resulted in inducing memory impairment, which was prevented by VitC administration. This could be related to preserving hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms by VitC during WTS exposure.


Vitamin C; hippocampus; maze; memory; tobacco; waterpipe

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