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Environ Microbiol. 2018 Jun;20(6):2256-2269. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14274. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea show faecal microbiomes with increased Streptococcus abundance, irrespective of diarrhoea aetiology.

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Gut Ecosystem Department, Institute of Nutritional Science, Nestlé Research Centre, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000, Lausanne 26, Switzerland.
International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.
Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, EPFL Innovation Park, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.


We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhoea irrespective of aetiology. Compared with 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhoea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown aetiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of faecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E. coli-associated virulence genes. No enteropathogens could be attributed to a subgroup of patients. Elevated lytic coliphage DNA was detected in 2 out of 5 investigated enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)-infected patients. Streptococcal outgrowth in AD is discussed as a potential nutrient-driven consequence of glucose provided with oral rehydration solution.

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