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Am J Kidney Dis. 2019 Jan;73(1):90-101. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.03.021. Epub 2018 May 18.

Seizures, Antiepileptic Drugs, and CKD.

Author information

1
Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA.
2
Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address: kevin.kelly@ahn.org.

Abstract

There are 2 major categories of patients with seizures and chronic kidney disease (CKD): patients who develop acute symptomatic seizures in the setting of CKD and patients with epilepsy who at some point develop CKD. The incidence of uremic seizures with kidney failure is ∼10%. These seizures are often nonconvulsive and may mimic uremic encephalopathy. Recognition and management of such situations may be challenging for treating physicians who are non-neurologists. Furthermore, practitioners caring for patients with seizures with or without an established diagnosis of epilepsy in the setting of CKD frequently encounter challenges in the selection, loading, titration, and maintenance of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) due to potentially altered pharmacokinetics of the AEDs. We review the pathophysiology of uremia, uremic seizures, and other neurologic complications of kidney failure; management approaches to the treatment of such complications; the relevant mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics of AEDs with their use in CKD; and in particular, the management of AEDs in patients requiring hemodialysis therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD); antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); dose adjustment; epilepsy; hemodialysis; kidney failure; renal dosing; renal excretion; review; seizures; uremic seizure

PMID:
29784616
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.03.021

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