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Stem Cell Reports. 2018 Jun 5;10(6):1991-2004. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.04.020. Epub 2018 May 17.

All-Optical Electrophysiology for High-Throughput Functional Characterization of a Human iPSC-Derived Motor Neuron Model of ALS.

Author information

1
The Ken & Ruth Davee Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
2
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
3
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
4
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.
5
Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
6
Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address: keggan@scrb.harvard.edu.
7
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA. Electronic address: cohen@chemistry.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons are an attractive substrate for modeling disease, yet the heterogeneity of these cultures presents a challenge for functional characterization by manual patch-clamp electrophysiology. Here, we describe an optimized all-optical electrophysiology, "Optopatch," pipeline for high-throughput functional characterization of human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures. We demonstrate the method in a human iPSC-derived motor neuron (iPSC-MN) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a comparison of iPSC-MNs with an ALS-causing mutation (SOD1 A4V) with their genome-corrected controls, the mutants showed elevated spike rates under weak or no stimulus and greater likelihood of entering depolarization block under strong optogenetic stimulus. We compared these results with numerical simulations of simple conductance-based neuronal models and with literature results in this and other iPSC-based models of ALS. Our data and simulations suggest that deficits in slowly activating potassium channels may underlie the changes in electrophysiology in the SOD1 A4V mutation.

KEYWORDS:

ALS; all-optical electrophysiology; iPSC; motor neurons

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