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Adv Microb Physiol. 2018;72:29-63. doi: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.003. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Nitric Oxide Signalling in Yeast.

Author information

1
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia.
2
Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan. Electronic address: hiro@bs.naist.jp.

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a cellular signalling molecule widely conserved among organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and higher eukaryotes such as plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by the activities of NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR). There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). NO homeostasis, based on the balance between NO synthesis and degradation, is important for regulating its physiological functions, since an excess of NO causes nitrosative stress due to the high reactivity of NO and NO-derived compounds. In yeast, NO may be involved in stress responses, but the role of NO and the mechanism underlying NO signalling are poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NOS orthologs in the yeast genome. NOS and NIR activities have been observed in yeast cells, but the gene-encoding NOS and the mechanism by which NO production is catalysed by NIR remain unclear. On the other hand, yeast cells employ NOD and GSNOR to maintain intracellular redox balance following endogenous NO production, treatment with exogenous NO, or exposure to environmental stresses. This article reviews NO metabolism (synthesis, degradation) and its regulation in yeast. The physiological roles of NO in yeast, including the oxidative stress response, are also discussed. Such investigations into NO signalling are essential for understanding how NO modulates the genetics and physiology of yeast. In addition to being responsible for the pathology and pharmacology of various degenerative diseases, NO signalling may be a potential target for the construction and engineering of industrial yeast strains.

KEYWORDS:

Nitric oxide detoxification; Nitric oxide in yeast; Nitric oxide metabolism; Nitric oxide synthesis; Small signalling molecule

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