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Environ Pollut. 2018 Sep;240:653-660. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.145. Epub 2018 May 16.

Toxicological effects on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-209 from a metabolic point.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address: yajuanshi@rcees.ac.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Vinayaka Mission's Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem 636308, Tamil Nadu, India.
4
School of Environment & Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100059, China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Department of Environmental and Conservation Sciences, University of Swat, Swat 19130, Pakistan.

Abstract

Earthworms improve the soil fertility and they are also sensitive to soil contaminants. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida), standard reference species, were usually chosen to culture and handle for toxicity tests. Metabolic responses in earthworms exposed to 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) were inhibitory and interfered with basal metabolism. In this study, 1H-NMR based metabolomics was used to identify sensitive biomarkers and explore metabolic responses of earthworms under sub-lethal BDE-47 and BDE-209 concentrations for 14 days. The results revealed that lactate was accumulated in earthworms exposed to BDE-47 and BDE-209. Glutamate increased significantly when the concentration of BDE-47 and BDE-209 reached 10 mg/kg. The BDE-47 exposure above 50 mg/kg concentration decreased the content of fumarate significantly, which was noticed different from that of BDE-209. Whereas, the BDE-207 or BDE-209 exposure increased the protein degradation into amino acids in vivo. The increased betaine content indicated that earthworms may maintain the cell osmotic pressure and protected enzyme activity by metabolic regulation. Moreover, the BDE-47 and BDE-209 exposure at 10 mg/kg changed most of the metabolites significantly, indicating that the metabolic responses were more sensitive than growth inhibition and gene expression. The metabolomics results revealed the toxic modes of BDE-47 and BDE-209 act on the osmoregulation, energy metabolism, nerve activities, tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acids metabolism. Furthermore, our results highlighted that the 1H-NMR based metabolomics is a strong tool for identifying sensitive biomarkers and eco-toxicological assessment.

KEYWORDS:

BDE-209; BDE-47; Ecotoxicology; Metabolomics; POPs

PMID:
29775942
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.145
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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