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Pediatrics. 2018 Jun;141(6). pii: e20172719. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2719. Epub 2018 May 17.

Cognitive Development and Quality of Life Associated With BPD in 10-Year-Olds Born Preterm.

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Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, and
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, and.
Section of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Kennedy Research Center on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Departments of Pediatrics and.
Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.
Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and.
Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.



To compare neurocognitive, language, executive function, academic achievement, neurologic and behavioral outcomes, and quality of life at age 10 years in children born extremely preterm who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to children who did not develop BPD.


The Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns study population included 863 children born extremely preterm whose BPD status before discharge was known had an IQ (Differential Ability Scales II [DAS II]) assessment at 10 years. We evaluated the association of BPD with any cognitive (DAS II), executive function (NEuroPSYchological Assessment II), academic achievement (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III and Oral and Written Language Scales [OWLS]) as well as social dysfunctions (Social Responsiveness Scale). We used logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounding factors, to assess the strength of association between the severity of BPD and each outcomes.


Three hundred and seventy-two (43%) children were oxygen-dependent at 36 weeks postconception age, whereas an additional 78 (9%) were also oxygen- and ventilator-dependent. IQ scores 2 or more SDs below the expected mean (ie, z scores ≤-2) occurred twice as commonly among children who had BPD as among those who did not. Children with severe BPD consistently had the lowest scores on DAS II, OWLS, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III, NEuroPSYchological Assessment II, and Social Responsiveness Scale assessments.


Among 10-year-old children born extremely preterm, those who had BPD were at increased risk of cognitive, language, and executive dysfunctions; academic achievement limitations; social skill deficits; and low scores on assessments of health-related quality of life.


Conflict of interest statement

POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

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