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PLoS One. 2018 May 17;13(5):e0196823. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196823. eCollection 2018.

Studying the dynamics of interbeat interval time series of healthy and congestive heart failure subjects using scale based symbolic entropy analysis.

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Department of Computer Sciences & Information Technology, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computing &IT, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Economics, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
Department of Sociology & Rural Development, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.


Considerable interest has been devoted for developing a deeper understanding of the dynamics of healthy biological systems and how these dynamics are affected due to aging and disease. Entropy based complexity measures have widely been used for quantifying the dynamics of physical and biological systems. These techniques have provided valuable information leading to a fuller understanding of the dynamics of these systems and underlying stimuli that are responsible for anomalous behavior. The single scale based traditional entropy measures yielded contradictory results about the dynamics of real world time series data of healthy and pathological subjects. Recently the multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm was introduced for precise description of the complexity of biological signals, which was used in numerous fields since its inception. The original MSE quantified the complexity of coarse-grained time series using sample entropy. The original MSE may be unreliable for short signals because the length of the coarse-grained time series decreases with increasing scaling factor τ, however, MSE works well for long signals. To overcome the drawback of original MSE, various variants of this method have been proposed for evaluating complexity efficiently. In this study, we have proposed multiscale normalized corrected Shannon entropy (MNCSE), in which instead of using sample entropy, symbolic entropy measure NCSE has been used as an entropy estimate. The results of the study are compared with traditional MSE. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using noise signals as well as interbeat interval signals from healthy and pathological subjects. The preliminary results of the study indicate that MNCSE values are more stable and reliable than original MSE values. The results show that MNCSE based features lead to higher classification accuracies in comparison with the MSE based features.

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