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Br J Nutr. 2018 Jun;119(11):1233-1244. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000855.

The influence of juicing on the appearance of blueberry metabolites 2 h after consumption: a metabolite profiling approach.

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Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences,Ellison Building,Northumbria University,Newcastle Upon Tyne,Tyne and Wear NE1 7ST,UK.


The consumption of berries has been linked to decreased risk of degenerative disease. Berries are regularly processed into juices. It is largely unknown how the juicing process affects the bioavailability of metabolites. As metabolomics has shown to be a valuable nutritional tool to study global metabolite differences, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juicing on the relative appearance of blueberry metabolites in humans using metabolomics. Nine healthy subjects consumed 250 g of fresh blueberries either as the whole fruit or after juicing, and provided blood and urine samples before and 2 h after intake in a cross-over design. Samples underwent metabolite profiling using LCMS, and data were mined with multivariate analysis. Overall, <12 % of all ions detected were significantly influenced by blueberry treatment (P<0ยท05). Partial least-squared discriminant analysis models of post-treatment samples revealed good discrimination. In urinary samples, whole blueberry treatment resulted in 108 ions that were significantly higher compared with juiced treatment (positive and negative mode combined), whereas only eight were significantly higher after juiced treatment. Examples of putative annotations included metabolites of ferulic and caffeic acids, several phenolic metabolites conjugated to sulphate, glycoside or glucuronide and fatty acyl derivatives, which were of higher intensity after whole blueberry treatment. In conclusion, consumption of whole blueberries resulted in a higher range of phenolic and other metabolites in plasma and urine samples 2 h after consumption. Both whole and juiced blueberries resulted in very similar metabolite profiles at 2 h, although this was the only time point measured.


PLS-DA partial least-squared discriminant analysis; VIP variable importance in projection; Bioavailability; Blueberries; Juices; Metabolites; Metabolomics; Processing

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