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J Virol. 2018 Jul 17;92(15). pii: e00607-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00607-18. Print 2018 Aug 1.

Bag2 Is a Component of a Cytosolic Extraction Machinery That Promotes Membrane Penetration of a Nonenveloped Virus.

Author information

1
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
3
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA btsai@umich.edu.

Abstract

During entry, the nonenveloped polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40 (SV40) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it penetrates the ER membrane to reach the cytosol; the virus is then transported into the nucleus to cause infection. Although a coherent understanding of SV40's host entry is emerging, how the virus is ejected from the ER into the cytosol remains mysterious. Our previous analyses revealed that the cytosolic Hsc70-SGTA-Hsp105 complex binds to SV40 and extracts it from the ER into the cytosol. We now report that the nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) Bag2 stimulates SV40 release from Hsc70, thereby enabling successful virus arrival at the cytosol, which leads to infection. Hsp105, another NEF of Hsc70, displays a function overlapping that of Bag2, underscoring the importance of this release reaction. Our findings identify a new component of an extraction machinery essential during membrane penetration of a nonenveloped virus and provide further mechanistic insights into this process.IMPORTANCE How a nonenveloped virus penetrates a biological membrane to cause infection is a mystery. For the nonenveloped polyomavirus SV40, transport across the ER membrane to reach the cytosol is an essential virus infection step. Here, we identify a novel component of a cytosolic Hsc70-dependent chaperone complex called Bag2 that extracts SV40 from the ER into the cytosol. Bag2 does this by triggering SV40 release from Hsc70, thus ensuring that the virus reaches the cytosol en route for productive infection.

KEYWORDS:

endoplasmic reticulum; membrane transport; nonenveloped virus; protein chaperone; simian virus 40

PMID:
29769335
PMCID:
PMC6052292
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00607-18
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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