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BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 May 16;18(1):370. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3180-0.

Racial/ethnic disparities among Asian Americans in inpatient acute myocardial infarction mortality in the United States.

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General Internal Medicine, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, 2001 Marcus Avenue Suite S160, Lake Success, NY, 11042, USA.
General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Crosstown Two, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.
VA Boston Healthcare System, 150 S. Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02130, USA.
University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA, 94121, USA.
MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 106 Irving Street NW POB South 124, Washington, DC, 20010, USA.



Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common high-risk disease with inpatient mortality of 5% nationally. But little is known about this outcome among Asian Americans (Asians), a fast growing racial/ethnic minority in the country. The objectives of the study are to obtain near-national estimates of differences in AMI inpatient mortality between minorities (including Asians) and non-Hispanic Whites and identify comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics associated with these differences.


This is a retrospective analysis of 2010-2011 state inpatient discharge data from 10 states with the largest share of Asian population. We identified hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of AMI using the ICD-9 code and used self-reported race/ethnicity to identify White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian. We performed descriptive analysis of sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, type of AMI, and receipt of cardiac procedures. Next, we examined overall inpatient AMI mortality rate based on patients' race/ethnicity. We also examined the types of AMI and a receipt of invasive cardiac procedures by race/ethnicity. Lastly, we used sequential multivariate logistic regression models to study inpatient mortality for each minority group compared to Whites, adjusting for covariates.


Over 70% of the national Asian population resides in the 10 states. There were 496,472 hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of AMI; 75% of all cases were Whites, 10% were Blacks, 12% were Hispanics, and 3% were Asians. Asians had a higher prevalence of cardiac comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, and kidney failure compared to Whites (p-value< 0.01). There were 158,623 STEMI (ST-elevation AMI), and the proportion of hospitalizations for STEMI was the highest for Asians (35.2% for Asians, 32.7% for Whites, 25.3% for Blacks, and 32.1% for Hispanics). Asians had the highest rates of inpatient AMI mortality: 7.2% for Asians, 6.3% for Whites, 5.4% for Blacks, and 5.9% for Hispanics (ANOVA p-value < 0.01). In adjusted analyses, Asians (OR = 1.11 [95% CI: 1.04-1.19]) and Hispanics (OR = 1.14 [1.09-1.19]) had a higher likelihood of inpatient mortality compared to Whites.


Asians had a higher risk-adjusted likelihood of inpatient AMI mortality compared to Whites. Further research is needed to identify the underlying reasons for this finding to improve AMI disparities for Asians.


Acute myocardial infarction; Asian; Health disparity; Mortality, comorbidities

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