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Anim Nutr. 2015 Sep;1(3):96-103. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Dietary sources and their effects on animal production and environmental sustainability.

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Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Agricultural Unit, Department of Education, National Institute of Education, Phnom Penh 12401, Cambodia.


Animal agriculture has been an important component in the integrated farming systems in developing countries. It serves in a paramount diversified role in producing animal protein food, draft power, farm manure as well as ensuring social status-quo and enriching livelihood. Ruminants are importantly contributable to the well-being and the livelihood of the global population. Ruminant production systems can vary from subsistence to intensive type of farming depending on locality, resource availability, infrastructure accessibility, food demand and market potentials. The growing demand for sustainable animal production is compelling to researchers exploring the potential approaches to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from livestock. Global warming has been an issue of concern and importance for all especially those engaged in animal agriculture. Methane (CH4) is one of the major GHG accounted for at least 14% of the total GHG with a global warming potential 25-fold of carbon dioxide and a 12-year atmospheric lifetime. Agricultural sector has a contribution of 50 to 60% methane emission and ruminants are the major source of methane contribution (15 to 33%). Methane emission by enteric fermentation of ruminants represents a loss of energy intake (5 to 15% of total) and is produced by methanogens (archae) as a result of fermentation end-products. Ruminants׳ digestive fermentation results in fermentation end-products of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial protein and methane production in the rumen. Rumen microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores are closely associated with the rumen fermentation efficiency. Besides using feed formulation and feeding management, local feed resources have been used as alternative feed additives for manipulation of rumen ecology with promising results for replacement in ruminant feeding. Those potential feed additive practices are as follows: 1) the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (e.g., condensed tannins and saponins) such as mangosteen peel powder, rain tree pod; 2) plants rich in minerals, e.g., banana flower powder; and 3) plant essential oils, e.g., garlic, eucalyptus leaf powder, etc. Implementation of the -feed-system using cash crop and leguminous shrubs or fodder trees are of promising results.


Animal production system; Environment; Feed resources; Feeding; Nutrition

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