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J Orthod Sci. 2018 Feb 15;7:1. doi: 10.4103/jos.JOS_51_17. eCollection 2018.

Survival analysis of an orthodontic bracket bond subjected to cyclic tensile and shear forces.

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Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of survival analysis in cyclic fatigue testing in orthodontic bracket bonding.


We used 100 extracted bovine lower incisors (50 orthodontic brackets and 50 eyelet brackets). Each set of brackets was further divided by etching technique (25 total-etch and 25 self-etch). Cyclic fatigue testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min using an up-and-down method. Kaplan-Meier survival data analyses and Cox regression analyses were performed.


Survival analysis proved to be a simple methodology and revealed that the etching technique was not a statistically significant predictor for survival of orthodontic bracket bonding with either tensile or shear cyclic forces at P > 0.05. In tensile cyclic loading, high mechanical loading after controlling for the etching technique is a statistically significant predictor for lower survival of the orthodontic bracket bond at P < 0.001.


Both etching techniques (total-etch and self-etch) are equally efficient in bonding orthodontic brackets. High mechanical loading is an important predictor of bond failure when applying tensile cyclic forces. Finally, survival analysis is a simpler alternative method to analyze orthodontic bracket bonding subjected to cyclic tensile and shear forces and gives similar results to other complicated methods.


Cyclic shear; cyclic tensile; survival analysis

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