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J Med Internet Res. 2018 May 15;20(5):e187. doi: 10.2196/jmir.9330.

Mapping of Crowdsourcing in Health: Systematic Review.

Author information

INSERM UMR1153, Methods Team, Epidemiology and Statistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Research Center, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.
Centre d'Epidémiologie Clinique, Hôpital Hôtel Dieu, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
Cochrane France, Paris, France.
Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States.



Crowdsourcing involves obtaining ideas, needed services, or content by soliciting Web-based contributions from a crowd. The 4 types of crowdsourced tasks (problem solving, data processing, surveillance or monitoring, and surveying) can be applied in the 3 categories of health (promotion, research, and care).


This study aimed to map the different applications of crowdsourcing in health to assess the fields of health that are using crowdsourcing and the crowdsourced tasks used. We also describe the logistics of crowdsourcing and the characteristics of crowd workers.


MEDLINE, EMBASE, and were searched for available reports from inception to March 30, 2016, with no restriction on language or publication status.


We identified 202 relevant studies that used crowdsourcing, including 9 randomized controlled trials, of which only one had posted results at Crowdsourcing was used in health promotion (91/202, 45.0%), research (73/202, 36.1%), and care (38/202, 18.8%). The 4 most frequent areas of application were public health (67/202, 33.2%), psychiatry (32/202, 15.8%), surgery (22/202, 10.9%), and oncology (14/202, 6.9%). Half of the reports (99/202, 49.0%) referred to data processing, 34.6% (70/202) referred to surveying, 10.4% (21/202) referred to surveillance or monitoring, and 5.9% (12/202) referred to problem-solving. Labor market platforms (eg, Amazon Mechanical Turk) were used in most studies (190/202, 94%). The crowd workers' characteristics were poorly reported, and crowdsourcing logistics were missing from two-thirds of the reports. When reported, the median size of the crowd was 424 (first and third quartiles: 167-802); crowd workers' median age was 34 years (32-36). Crowd workers were mainly recruited nationally, particularly in the United States. For many studies (58.9%, 119/202), previous experience in crowdsourcing was required, and passing a qualification test or training was seldom needed (11.9% of studies; 24/202). For half of the studies, monetary incentives were mentioned, with mainly less than US $1 to perform the task. The time needed to perform the task was mostly less than 10 min (58.9% of studies; 119/202). Data quality validation was used in 54/202 studies (26.7%), mainly by attention check questions or by replicating the task with several crowd workers.


The use of crowdsourcing, which allows access to a large pool of participants as well as saving time in data collection, lowering costs, and speeding up innovations, is increasing in health promotion, research, and care. However, the description of crowdsourcing logistics and crowd workers' characteristics is frequently missing in study reports and needs to be precisely reported to better interpret the study findings and replicate them.


crowdsourcing; health; review [publication type]

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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