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J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 May 15;15(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0228-9.

Daytime and nighttime casein supplements similarly increase muscle size and strength in response to resistance training earlier in the day: a preliminary investigation.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, Texas Woman's University, 304 Administration Drive, Denton, TX, 76204, USA. jmjoyx@gmail.com.
2
Institute for Women's Health, Texas Woman's University, 013 Human Development Building, P.O. Box 425876, Denton, TX, 76204-5888, USA. jmjoyx@gmail.com.
3
Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, Texas Woman's University, 304 Administration Drive, Denton, TX, 76204, USA.
4
Institute for Women's Health, Texas Woman's University, 013 Human Development Building, P.O. Box 425876, Denton, TX, 76204-5888, USA.
5
GU Energy Labs, Berkeley, CA, 94710, USA.
6
Friesland Campina, 6700 AE Wageningen, Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
7
Dymatize Athletic Nutrition Institute, Dallas, TX, 75207, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training.

METHODS:

Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily. Isocaloric diets provided 1.8 g protein/kg body weight.

RESULTS:

Both groups increased (p < 0.05) in lean soft tissue (DT Pre: 58.3 ± 10.3 kg; DT Post: 61.1 ± 11.1 kg; NT Pre: 58.3 ± 8.6 kg; NT Post: 60.3 ± 8.2 kg), cross-sectional area (CSA, DT Pre: 3.4 ± 1.5 cm2; DT Post: 4.1 ± 1.7 cm2; NT Pre: 3.3 ± 1.6 cm2; NT Post: 3.7 ± 1.6 cm2) and strength in the leg press (DT Pre: 341 ± 87.3 kg; DT Post: 421.1 ± 94.0 kg; NT Pre: 450.0 ± 180.3 kg; NT Post: 533.9 ± 155.4 kg) and bench press (DT Pre: 89.0 ± 27.0 kg; DT Post: 101.0 ± 24.0 kg; NT Pre 100.8 ± 32.4 kg; NT Post: 109.1 ± 30.4 kg) with no difference between groups in any variable (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Both NT and DT protein consumption as part of a 24-h nutrition approach are effective for increasing strength and hypertrophy. The results support the strategy of achieving specific daily protein levels versus specific timing of protein ingestion for increasing muscle mass and performance.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03352583 .

KEYWORDS:

Anabolic window; Hypertrophy; Protein; Resistance training; Supplements; Timing; Window of opportunity

PMID:
29764464
PMCID:
PMC5952515
DOI:
10.1186/s12970-018-0228-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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