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Sleep Med Clin. 2018 Jun;13(2):271-281. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2018.02.002. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Effects of Chronic Opioid Use on Sleep and Wake.

Author information

1
Division of Sleep Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 450 Broadway Street, Redwood City, CA 94063, USA.
2
Bethesda North Hospital, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 10535 Montgomery Road, Suite 200, Cincinnati, OH 45242, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, 181 Taylor Avenue, Columbus, OH 43203, USA. Electronic address: shahrokhjavaheri@icloud.com.

Abstract

Chronic use of opioids negatively affects sleep on 2 levels: sleep architecture and breathing. Patients suffer from a variety of daytime sequelae. There may be a bidirectional relationship between poor sleep quality, sleep-disordered breathing, and daytime function. Opioids are a potential cause of incident depression. The best therapeutic option is withdrawal of opioids, which proves difficult. Positive airway pressure devices are considered first-line treatment for sleep-related breathing disorders. New generation positive pressure servo ventilators are increasingly popular as a treatment option for opioid-induced sleep-disordered breathing. Treatments to improve sleep quality, sleep-related breathing disorders, and quality of life in patients who use opioids chronically are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Central sleep apnea; Daytime sleepiness; Depression; Opiates; Poor sleep; Sleep-disordered breathing

PMID:
29759277
DOI:
10.1016/j.jsmc.2018.02.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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