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Br J Nutr. 2018 May;119(10):1151-1156. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000703.

The glycaemic index and insulinaemic index of commercially available breakfast and snack foods in an Asian population.

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1Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC),Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS),Agency for Science,Technology and Research (A*STAR) andNational University Health System, 117599Singapore.
2General Mills, Inc.,Golden Valley,MN 55427,USA.


A low-glycaemic-index (GI) breakfast has been shown to lower blood glucose levels throughout the day. A wide variety of breakfast foods are consumed, but their GI values are largely unknown, hence limiting consumers' ability to select healthier options. This study investigated the GI values of ten common breakfast (five Asian and five Western) foods in this region using a randomised, cross-over study design. Participants arrived after an overnight fast, and fasting blood sample was taken before participants consumed test foods. Next, blood samples were taken at fixed intervals for 180 min. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to test foods were calculated as incremental AUC over 120 min, which were subsequently reported as glycaemic and insulinaemic indices. In all, nineteen healthy men (nine Chinese and ten Indians) aged 24·7 (sem 0·4) years with a BMI of 21·7 (sem 0·4) kg/m2 completed the study. Asian breakfast foods were of medium (white bun filled with red bean paste=58 (sem 4); Chinese steamed white bun=58 (sem 3)) to high GI (rice idli=85 (sem 4); rice dosa=76 (sem 5); upma=71 (sem 6)), whereas Western breakfast foods were all of low GI (whole-grain biscuit=54 (sem 5); whole-grain biscuit filled with peanut butter=44 (sem 3); whole-grain oat muesli=55 (sem 4); whole-grain oat protein granola=51 (sem 4); whole-grain protein cereal=49 (sem 3)). The GI of test foods negatively correlated with protein (r s -0·366), fat (r s -0·268) and dietary fibre (r s -0·422) (all P<0·001). GI values from this study contribute to the worldwide GI database, and may assist healthcare professionals in recommending low-GI breakfast to assist in lower daily glycaemia among Asians who are susceptible to type 2 diabetes mellitus.


GI glycaemic index; GR glycaemic response; II insulinaemic index; iAUC incremental AUC; Dietary fats; Dietary fibres; Dietary proteins; Glucose; Glycaemic index; Insulin

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