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Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018 Nov;67:150-167. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.05.002. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Pathogenesis of Keratoconus: The intriguing therapeutic potential of Prolactin-inducible protein.

Author information

1
Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus DK-8200, Denmark.
3
Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States; Department of Ophthalmology/Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, 608 Stanton L. Young Blvd, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States. Electronic address: Dimitrios-Karamichos@ouhsc.edu.

Abstract

Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Sex hormones are known to play a role in the maintenance of the structure and integrity of the human cornea. Hormone levels have been reported to alter corneal thickness, curvature, and sensitivity during different times of menstrual cycle. Surprisingly, the role of sex hormones in corneal diseases and KC has been largely neglected. Prolactin-induced protein, known to be regulated by sex hormones, is a new KC biomarker that has been recently proposed. Studies herein discuss the role of sex hormones as a control mechanism for KC onset and progression and evidence supporting the view that prolactin-induced protein is an important hormonally regulated biomarker in KC is discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Bodily fluids; Human cornea; Keratoconus; Prolactin-induced protein; Sex hormones

PMID:
29758268
PMCID:
PMC6235698
DOI:
10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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