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J Neurotrauma. 2019 Jan 15;36(2):293-299. doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5575. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Neurostimulant Prescribing Patterns in Children Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Author information

1
1 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
2
2 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
3
3 CHP-Data Warehouse, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
4
4 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
5
5 Pharmacy Services, Pediatric Critical Care, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
6
6 Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Abstract

Neurostimulant medications are commonly prescribed following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults; little is known about their use in children with TBI. Our objective was to analyze neurostimulant prescribing practices from 2005 to 2015 in children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with TBI. We hypothesized that neurostimulant prescriptions have increased over time and are associated with older age and injury severity. A retrospective cohort study of patients age 1 month to 18 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) discharge diagnosis code for TBI admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2015 in 37 pediatric hospitals included in the Pediatric Health Information System was conducted. Variables examined include patient and injury characteristics and neurostimulant medication use. Descriptive statistics and multi-variable logistic regression testing were used to determine variables associated with neurostimulant prescription. Of 30,881 patients with TBI, most were male (64%) and age 0-4 years (43%). In patients with mechanism of injury reported (nā€‰=ā€‰21,998), TBI was most frequently due to falls (36%) and motor vehicle collisions (36%). One thousand sixty-four neurostimulants were prescribed to 878 (3%) patients with 41% of prescriptions for amantadine and 38% for methylphenidate. Neurostimulants were prescribed a median (interquartile range) of 17 (8-35) days post-injury and increased over the study decade (R2ā€‰=ā€‰0.806). In a multi-variable analysis, variables most strongly associated with receipt of a neurostimulant were age 14-18 years (odds ratio 5.8, 95% confidence interval [4.3,7.8]), motor vehicle collision (3.1, [2.4,4.2]), intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor (3.8, [3.1,4.5]), and mechanical ventilation (3.4, [2.7,4.3]). Use of neurostimulants following pediatric TBI is uncommon, has increased over time, and is associated with indicators of higher severity of illness. Knowledge of prescribing practices may assist in optimizing the design of efficacy and outcome studies that will inform clinical guidelines.

KEYWORDS:

critical care; neurostimulants; pediatrics; physical therapy; traumatic brain injury (TBI)

PMID:
29756534
DOI:
10.1089/neu.2017.5575

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