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J Int Med Res. 2018 Jul;46(7):2976-2982. doi: 10.1177/0300060518773239. Epub 2018 May 13.

Tuberculous peritonitis and pleurisy accompanied by pulmonary cryptococcosis: A case report.

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The Third Comprehensive Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine (Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine), Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China.


Although the infectious diseases tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcosis both cause formation of single or multiple nodules in immunodeficient hosts, cases of co-infection of these diseases are rarely seen. We report a patient who was co-infected with TB and cryptococcosis. A male patient with no clinical evidence of immunodeficiency presented with a 3-week history of abdominal distension accompanied by oedema of recurring lower extremities. The patient was diagnosed with tuberculous peritonitis and tuberculous pleurisy by an abdominal puncture biopsy. Several months after being treated for TB, the patient was diagnosed with Cryptococcus infection and received antifungal treatment. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested that treatment was effective. This case illustrates the challenges encountered during assessment of neoplasms associated with TB and cryptococcosis. Differential diagnosis requires an abdominal puncture biopsy. Diagnosis of Cryptococcus infection also requires a positive cryptococcal culture and positive India ink staining analysis. Notably, our patient also showed no obvious symptoms of cryptococcosis after receiving anti-TB treatment. Accordingly, in this report, we discuss the possible pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the coincidence of both types of inflammatory lesions. We emphasize the need for a greater awareness of atypical presentations of TB accompanied by Cryptococcus infection.


Cryptococcus infection; Tuberculous pleurisy; abdominal puncture biopsy; atypical symptoms; cryptococcosis; peritonitis

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