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Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2018 Jan-Mar;32(1):28-32. doi: 10.1016/j.sjopt.2018.02.004. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Cytogenetic results of choroidal nevus growth into melanoma in 55 consecutive cases.

Author information

1
Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2
Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

Purpose:

To investigate the cytogenetic results of choroidal nevus with photographically-documented transformation into choroidal melanoma.

Methods:

Retrospective analysis of 55 consecutive patients who underwent fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for DNA isolation and whole genome array based assay for chromosomes 3, 6, and 8 analysis prior to plaque radiotherapy. Tumors with abnormalities in chromosomes 3 and 8 were considered high-risk for metastasis.

Results:

At diagnosis of choroidal nevus the mean patient age was 57 years (median 57, range 10-83 years). All patients were Caucasian and 36 (65%) were female. At the time of nevus diagnosis, the mean tumor basal diameter was 7.4 mm (median 6.5, range 1.5-18.0 mm) and tumor thickness was 2.2 mm (median 2.2, range 0.5-3.9 mm). The mean interval between diagnosis of choroidal nevus and transformation into choroidal melanoma was 58 months (median 42, range 3-238 months). At the time of melanoma diagnosis, the mean tumor basal diameter was 9.7 mm (median 9.0, range 5.0-19.0) and tumor thickness was 3.5 mm (median 3.4, range 1.3-8.1). Cytogenetic analysis of FNAB-isolated melanoma revealed 25 patients (45%) with high-risk and 30 (55%) with low-risk cytogenetic findings. The rate of tumor growth into melanoma was inversely related to high-risk cytogenetic profile (p = 0.03) as those with fast transformation ≤ 1 year showed high-risk in 80% compared to those with slow transformation > 1 year whoshowed high-risk profile in only 38%. Fast transformation into melanoma conferred a relative risk (RR) of 2.116 for high-risk cytogenetic profile, compared to slow transformation.

Conclusions:

Choroidal nevus with rapid transformation into melanoma within 1 year is significantly more likely to demonstrate high-risk cytogenetic profile, at risk for metastatic disease, compared to those with slow transformation.

KEYWORDS:

Choroidal nevus; Cytogenetic profile; Melanoma

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