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Am J Chin Med. 2018;46(4):751-767. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X18500398. Epub 2018 May 13.

Hesperidin Suppresses Renin-Angiotensin System Mediated NOX2 Over-Expression and Sympathoexcitation in 2K-1C Hypertensive Rats.

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* Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
§ Cardiovascular Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
¶ Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand.
† Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
‡ Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.


Hesperidin, a flavonoid derived from citrus fruits, possesses several beneficial effects including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hesperidin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade that mediated oxidative stress and sympathoexcitation in two-kidney, one-clipped (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypertensive rats were treated with hesperidin at 20[Formula: see text]mg/kg or 40[Formula: see text]mg/kg or losartan at 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg beginning at three weeks after surgery and then continued for four weeks ([Formula: see text]/group). Hesperidin reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in hypertensive rats compared to untreated rats ([Formula: see text]). Increased plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II levels, as well as, upregulated AT1 receptor protein expression in aortic tissues were attenuated in hypertensive rats treated with hesperidin. Hesperidin suppressed oxidative stress markers and NADPH oxidase over-expression, and restored plasma nitric oxide metabolites in 2K-1C rats. This was associated with improvement of the vascular response to acetylcholine in isolated mesenteric vascular beds and aortic rings from 2K-1C rats treated with hesperidin ([Formula: see text]). Enhancement of nerve-mediated vasoconstriction related to high plasma noradrenaline in the 2K-1C group was alleviated by hesperidin treatment ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, losartan exhibited antihypertensive effects by suppressing the RAS cascade and oxidative stress and improved vascular dysfunction observed in 2K-1C rats ([Formula: see text]). Based on these results, it can be presumed that hesperidin is an antihypertensive agent. Its antihypertensive action might be associated with reducing RAS cascade-induced NOX2 over-expression and sympathoexcitation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats.


2K-1C Hypertensive Rats; Hesperidin; Renin-Angiotensin System; Sympathoexcitation

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