Send to

Choose Destination
Prev Med. 2018 Aug;113:57-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.05.010. Epub 2018 May 16.

The association between serum vitamin d level and cognitive function in older adults: Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.

Author information

The Cooper Institute, 12330 Preston Rd., Dallas, TX 75230, United States. Electronic address:
The Cooper Institute, 12330 Preston Rd., Dallas, TX 75230, United States.
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390, United States.


Low blood level of vitamin D and low physical activity have been linked to the development of cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D and cognition as measured via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in a healthy, older population. The study sample consisted of 4358 patients from the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX. All participants underwent a maximal graded exercise test to determine cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Cognitive impairment was defined as a MoCA score <25. Low vitamin D status was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/mL. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D blood level and MoCA score. A low MoCA score was directly associated with higher age (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.53, 1.99), and inversely associated with female sex (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.77), and years of education (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.91). When controlling for significant predictors (age, sex, and education), the low vitamin D group had a significantly greater likelihood of having a low MoCA score (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.51). The vitamin D effect remained significant when CRF was added to the model (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.48). In conclusion, low vitamin D was shown to be associated with cognitive impairment. Therefore, preventive measures such as vitamin D supplementation may play a protective role in memory loss and/or age-associated cognitive decline.


Cardiorespiratory fitness; Cognition; Vitamin D

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center