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Adv Parasitol. 2018;100:155-208. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2018.03.006. Epub 2018 May 4.

Clonorchis sinensis and Clonorchiasis: The Relevance of Exploring Genetic Variation.

Author information

1
Melbourne Veterinary School, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
2
Melbourne Veterinary School, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: nyoung@unimelb.edu.au.
3
Melbourne Veterinary School, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: robinbg@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

Parasitic trematodes (flukes) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in humans. The Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, is one of the most destructive parasitic worms in humans in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. Although C. sinensis infection can be controlled relatively well using anthelmintics, the worm is carcinogenic, inducing cholangiocarcinoma and causing major suffering in ~15 million people in Asia. This chapter provides an account of C. sinensis and clonorchiasis research-covering aspects of biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunity, diagnosis, treatment and control, genetics and genomics. It also describes progress in the area of molecular biology (genetics, genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) and highlights challenges associated with comparative genomics and population genetics. It then reviews recent advances in the sequencing and characterisation of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes for a Korean isolate of C. sinensis and summarises salient comparative genomic work and the implications thereof. The chapter concludes by considering how advances in genomic and informatics will enable research on the genetics of C. sinensis and related parasites, as well as the discovery of new fluke-specific intervention targets.

KEYWORDS:

Clonorchiasis; Clonorchis sinensis; Comparative genomics; Liver fluke

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