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J Environ Manage. 2018 Aug 1;219:304-315. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.04.113. Epub 2018 May 9.

Formation and transformation of chloroform during managed aquifer recharge (MAR).

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address: 18643117873@163.com.
2
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address: lax64@126.com.
3
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address: zhangwenjing80@hotmail.com.
4
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address: 2493845476@qq.com.
5
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address: maty16@mails.jlu.edu.cn.
6
Water Resources Research Institute of Shandong Province, Jinan 250000, China. Electronic address: fulinli@126.com.
7
Water Resources Research Institute of Shandong Province, Jinan 250000, China. Electronic address: cxq1115@126.com.

Abstract

Chlorination is an effective method to protect the safety of groundwater systems during managed aquifer recharge. However, chlorination leads to the formation of disinfection by-products, whose behavior in aquifers remains unclear and has caused public concern. In this study, an in-site test was performed on an anoxic aquifer in Shouguang City, China, to investigate the formation and transformation of chloroform during managed aquifer recharge. The field tests showed that the formation of chloroform in groundwater caused by the recharge of chlorinated water, and that the fate of chloroform was affected by adsorption and biodegradation. The retardation factor was 1.27, and the half-life was 29 days. The formation and transformation of chloroform during continuous recharge under different hydrochemical conditions was further investigated by batch experiments. These experiments showed that the formation of chloroform increased with contact time, tended to be stable after 10 h, and was facilitated by high chloride/TOC ratios, high pH, and low ionic strength (IS) for a given contact time. The adsorption experiments showed that the process accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equations and the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacity was pH dependent (1.01-1.66 μg/g at pH 5 and 2.17-3.05 μg/g at pH 9). Increasing the IS promotes adsorption. The results from biodegradation experiments indicated that the biodegradation was well fitted by the Monod equation. The retardation factor in the batch experiments was close to that of the field test, but the half-life was less than the field test. This is mainly due to the difference in the concentration of dissolved oxygen.

KEYWORDS:

Chlorination; Chloroform; Formation; Managed aquifer recharge; Transformation

PMID:
29753238
DOI:
10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.04.113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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