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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Jul 1;188:60-63. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.03.029. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Assessing nicotine dependence in adolescent E-cigarette users: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for electronic cigarettes.

Author information

1
Oberlin College, Department of Psychology, 120 W. Lorain St., Oberlin, OH 44074, USA; Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, CMHC, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. Electronic address: meghan.morean@oberlin.edu.
2
Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, CMHC, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. Electronic address: suchitra.krishnan-sarin@yale.edu.
3
Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, CMHC, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. Electronic address: stephanie.omalley@yale.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms.

METHODS:

In 2017, 520 adolescent past-month e-cigarette users completed the PROMIS-E during a school-based survey (50.5% female, 84.8% White, 16.22[1.19] years old). Adolescents also reported on sex, grade, race, age at e-cigarette use onset, vaping frequency, nicotine e-liquid use, and past-month cigarette smoking. Analyses included conducting confirmatory factor analysis and examining the internal consistency of the PROMIS-E. Bivariate correlations and independent-samples t-tests were used to examine unadjusted relationships between e-cigarette nicotine dependence and the proposed risk factors. Regression models were run in which all potential risk factors were entered as simultaneous predictors of PROMIS-E scores.

RESULTS:

The single-factor structure of the PROMIS-E was confirmed and evidenced good internal consistency. Across models, larger PROMIS-E scores were associated with being in a higher grade, initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age, vaping more frequently, using nicotine e-liquid (and higher nicotine concentrations), and smoking cigarettes.

CONCLUSION:

Adolescent e-cigarette users reported experiencing nicotine dependence, which was assessed using the psychometrically sound PROMIS-E. Experiencing stronger nicotine dependence symptoms was associated with characteristics that previously have been shown to confer risk for frequent vaping and tobacco cigarette dependence.

KEYWORDS:

Addiction; Adolescent; Dependence; E-cigarette; Electronic cigarette; Nicotine; Youth

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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