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Asian J Endosc Surg. 2018 May;11(2):104-111. doi: 10.1111/ases.12492. Epub 2018 May 10.

Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy with augmented reality-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence versus open hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis: A propensity analysis at a single center.

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Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.



Laparoscopic hepatectomy is considered an acceptable treatment of choice in selected patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether indocyanine green (ICG) immunofluorescence, a new technology, may improve surgery outcomes has yet to be tested. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effect of ICG fluorescence imaging on the outcomes of pure laparoscopic hepatectomy and open hepatectomy for primary HCC with background cirrhosis.


From January 2015 to June 2016, 20 patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy with ICG immunofluorescence. The outcomes of pure laparoscopic hepatectomy with ICG immunofluorescence were compared with those of open hepatectomy. To avoid selection bias, patients were propensity score matched in a ratio of 1 : 6, with 20 patients in the laparoscopic group and 120 in the open group.


The laparoscopic group had 20 patients, and the open group had 120 patients. The laparoscopic group had less blood loss (125 vs 450 mL, P < 0.001), a shorter operation time (200 vs 250 min, P = 0.003), and a shorter hospital stay (5 vs 6 days, P < 0.001). The complication rate was 0% in the laparoscopic group compared to 15.0% in the open group (P = 0.135). All patients in the laparoscopic group had negative margin involvement. Four patients (3.3%) in the open resection group had positive margin involvement. Two patients in the ICG immunofluorescence group had additional lesions identified and resected during operation.


Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy with ICG immunofluorescence for primary HCC can be carried out safely with favorable short-term outcomes even in cirrhotic patients. Better identification of the bile duct structure and better assessment of the tumor resection margin and perfusion are advantages of this new technique.


Augmented reality; cirrhosis; laparoscopic hepatectomy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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