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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Aug 1;315(2):G318-G327. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00066.2018. Epub 2018 May 10.

Induction of gut proteasome activity in hemorrhagic shock and its recovery by treatment with diphenyldihaloketones CLEFMA and EF24.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center , Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.


Multiorgan failure in hemorrhagic shock is triggered by gut barrier dysfunction and consequent systemic infiltration of proinflammatory factors. Our previous study has shown that diphenyldihaloketone drugs 4-[3,5-bis[(2-chlorophenyl)methylene]-4-oxo-1-piperidinyl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid (CLEFMA) and 3,5-bis[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-4-piperidinone (EF24) restore gut barrier dysfunction and reduce systemic inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the effect of hemorrhagic shock on proteasome activity of intestinal epithelium and how CLEFMA and EF24 treatments modulate proteasome function in hemorrhagic shock. CLEFMA or EF24 (0.4 mg/kg) were given 1 h after withdrawing 50% of blood from Sprague-Dawley rats; no other resuscitation was provided. After another 5 h of compensation, small gut was collected to process tissue for proteasome activity, immunoblotting, and mRNA levels of genes responsible for unfolded-protein response (XBP1, ATF4, glucose-regulated protein of 78/95 kDa, and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible genes 153/34), polyubiquitin B and C, and immunoproteasome subunits β type-8 and -10 and proteasome activator subunit 1. We found that hemorrhagic shock induced proteasome activity in gut tissue and reduced the amounts of ubiquitinated proteins displayed on antiubiquitin immunoblots. However, simultaneous induction of unfolded-protein response or immunoproteasome genes was not observed. CLEFMA and EF24 treatments abolished the hemorrhagic shock-induced increase in proteasome activity. Further investigations revealed that the induction of proteasome in hemorrhagic shock is associated with disassembly of 26S proteasome; CLEFMA and EF24 prevented this disassembly. Consistent with these data, CLEFMA and EF24 reduced hemorrhagic shock-induced degradation of 20S substrate ornithine decarboxylase in gut tissue. These results suggest that activated proteasome plays an important role in ischemic gut pathophysiology, and it can be a druggable target in shock-induced gut dysfunction. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Ischemic injury to the gut is a trigger for the systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure in trauma and hemorrhagic shock. We show for the first time that hemorrhagic shock induces the gut proteasome activity by engendering 26S proteasome disassembly. Diphenyldihaloketones 4-[3,5-bis[(2-chlorophenyl)methylene]-4-oxo-1-piperidinyl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid and 3,5-bis[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-4-piperidinone treatment prevented the 26S disassembly. Understanding the role of proteasome in shock-associated gut injury will assist in the development of therapeutic means to address it.


CLEFMA; EF24; hemorrhagic shock; proteasome; small intestine

[Available on 2019-08-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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