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J Food Sci. 2018 Jun;83(6):1588-1595. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14156. Epub 2018 May 10.

Discovery of Amadori-Type Conjugates in a Peptide Maillard Reaction and Their Corresponding Influence on the Formation of Pyrazines.

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Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Lab. of Molecular Sensory Science, Beijing Technology and Business Univ., Beijing, 100048, China.


Knowledge of the role of peptides in the Maillard reaction is rather limited. In this study, peptide Maillard reaction model systems were established. Volatile and nonvolatile MRPs (Maillard reaction products) were investigated by GC-O-MS and LC-MS. Carbohydrate module labeling (CAMOLA) experiments were performed to elucidate the carbon skeleton of these compounds. Results showed that the peptide reaction system generated more pyrazines than the free amino acid group. Several new Amadori-type conjugates were identified as novel Maillard reaction products that could greatly influence the formation of pyrazines. Our work suggested anew mechanism involving these Amadori-type conjugates and subsequent investigation revealed that the conjugates could be important intermediate products in the reaction between dicarbonyl and dipeptide. Our findings demonstrate anew pyrazine generation mechanism in the dipeptide Maillard reaction.


We found that a dipeptide Maillard reaction system generated more pyrazines than a reaction system composed of free amino acids. New cross-linked peptide-sugar compounds were identified and found to impact the formation of pyrazines. The results of this study may help in the preparation of thermal reaction flavors using enzymatically hydrolyzed vegetable/animal proteins, which contain a considerable amount of peptides, as one of the major reactants.


Amadori-type conjugates; LC-Q-TOF-MS; carbon module labeling (CAMOLA); gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS); peptide Maillard reaction; pyrazine

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