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Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 Aug;18(8):498-513. doi: 10.1038/s41577-018-0014-6.

Integrating oncolytic viruses in combination cancer immunotherapy.

Author information

1
Rutgers Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
2
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Replimune, Inc., Woburn, MA, USA. howard.kaufman@replimune.com.
4
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. howard.kaufman@replimune.com.

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses can be usefully integrated into tumour immunotherapies, as they target multiple steps within the cancer-immunity cycle. Oncolytic viruses directly lyse tumour cells, leading to the release of soluble antigens, danger signals and type I interferons, which drive antitumour immunity. In addition, some oncolytic viruses can be engineered to express therapeutic genes or can functionally alter tumour-associated endothelial cells, further enhancing T cell recruitment into immune-excluded or immune-deserted tumour microenvironments. Oncolytic viruses can also utilize established tumours as an in situ source of neoantigen vaccination through cross-presentation, resulting in regression of distant, uninfected tumours. These features make oncolytic viruses attractive agents for combination strategies to optimize cancer immunotherapy.

PMID:
29743717
DOI:
10.1038/s41577-018-0014-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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