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Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 May;97(19):e0701. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010701.

Relationship between foot posture and dental malocclusions in children aged 6 to 9 years: A cross-sectional study.

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Department of Nursing and Podiatry.
Department of Physiotherapy, University of Málaga.
Private Dental Clinic, Carvajal & Ramírez, Málaga, Spain.


The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between foot posture and dental malocclusions in the anteroposterior plane, in children.The study population consisted of 189 children (95 boys and 94 girls) aged 6 to 9 years. In every case, previous informed consent was requested and obtained from the parent/guardian and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Málaga (CEUMA 26/2015H).This observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis is based on a study population (STROBE). Qualified personnel conducted a podiatric and dental examination of each child, recording the Clarke angle and the foot posture index (FPI) as an outcomes measure in the feet, and also dental malocclusions, according to Angle classification.A significant correlation was observed for the FPI scores (for right foot) as well as the Clarke angle (for right foot), in relation to dental malocclusions as determined by Angle classification (P < .001). Of all the supinated feet analyzed, 38.46% were Class II according to Angle classification, and none were Class III. Of the pronated feet, 48.57% were Class III, 42.85% were Class I, and 8.57% were Class II.The Clarke angle decreases with the progression from Class I to III, whereas the FPI increases with that from Class I to III. These findings suggest there is a relation between the Clarke angle and FPI, on the one hand, and dental malocclusion on the other.

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