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Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2017 Feb 14;5:160-167. doi: 10.1016/j.conctc.2017.02.006. eCollection 2017 Mar.

Re-recruiting young adult women into a second follow-up study.

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Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Department of Research & Evaluation, 100 South Los Robles Avenue, 2nd Floor, Pasadena, CA 91101, United States.



Recruitment among young adults presents a unique set of challenges as they are difficult to reach through conventional methods.


To describe our experience using both traditional and nontraditional methods in the re-recruitment of young adult women into the second follow-up study of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG).


589 adolescent girls were re-recruited as 11th graders into TAAG 2. Re-recruitment efforts were conducted when they were between 22 and 23 years of age (TAAG 3). Facebook, email, postal mail, and telephone (call and text) were used. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize cohort characteristics. Discrete categorical variables were compared using Pearson chi-square or Fisher's exact test, while Wilcoxon rank sum or t-tests were calculated for continuous variables. Pearson's chi square test, analysis of variance, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were also used. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted models.


All 589 cohort members were located and 479 (81.3%) were re-recruited. Participants who reported living in a two parent household or with their mothers only, and who did not perceive a lot of crime in their neighborhood were more likely to consent to participate in TAAG 3 (p = 0.047 and p = 0.008, respectively). Perceived neighborhood crime remained significant in the adjusted model (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.90, p = 0.02). Early and late consenters differed by race/ethnicity (p = 0.015), household type (p = 0.001), and socioeconomic status (p = 0.005). In the adjusted model, Black participants were more likely to consent later than White participants (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.13, p = 0.03).


A number of recruitment strategies and outreach attempts were needed to recruit young adult women into a follow-up study. Persistent efforts may be needed to recruit participants with race/ethnic diversity and lower socioeconomic status.


Recruitment; Retention; Young adult women

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