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Radiology. 2018 Sep;288(3):774-781. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2018170962. Epub 2018 May 8.

90Y Radioembolization for Hepatic Malignancy in Patients with Previous Biliary Intervention: Multicenter Analysis of Hepatobiliary Infections.

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From the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California-San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, Room M-361, San Francisco, CA 94143 (K.K.D., N.F., A.A.L., R.K.K.); Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa (M.C.S.); Department of Radiology, Indiana University Health University Hospital, Indianapolis, Ind (M.M., M.S.J.); H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla (E.A., G.E.); Radiology Imaging Associates, Denver, Colo (C.N.); Dotter Interventional Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Ore (J.M., K.F.); Department of Radiology, University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Chicago, Ill (R.P.L., R.C.G.); Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tenn (J.F., D.B.B.); Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Wash (S.W.K.); Department of Radiology, University of California-San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, Calif (S.C.R.); Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (K.A.P., D.L.); Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wis (S.B.W.); and Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, Fla (R.G.).


Purpose To determine the frequency of hepatobiliary infections after transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium 90 (90Y) in patients with liver malignancy and a history of biliary intervention. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, records of all consecutive patients with liver malignancy and history of biliary intervention treated with TARE at 14 centers between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. Data regarding liver function, 90Y dosimetry, antibiotic prophylaxis, and bowel preparation prophylaxis were collected. Primary outcome was development of hepatobiliary infection. Results One hundred twenty-six patients (84 men, 42 women; mean age, 68.8 years) with primary (n = 39) or metastatic (n = 87) liver malignancy and history of biliary intervention underwent 180 procedures with glass (92 procedures) or resin (88 procedures) microspheres. Hepatobiliary infections (liver abscesses in nine patients, cholangitis in five patients) developed in 10 of the 126 patients (7.9%) after 11 of the 180 procedures (6.1%; nine of those procedures were performed with glass microspheres). All patients required hospitalization (median stay, 12 days; range, 2-113 days). Ten patients required percutaneous abscess drainage, three patients underwent endoscopic stent placement and stone removal, and one patient needed insertion of percutaneous biliary drains. Infections resolved in five patients, four patients died (two from infection and two from cancer progression while infection was being treated), and one patient continued to receive suppressive antibiotics. Use of glass microspheres (P = .02), previous liver resection or ablation (P = .02), and younger age (P = .003) were independently predictive of higher infection risk. Conclusion Infectious complications such as liver abscess and cholangitis are uncommon but serious complications of transarterial radioembolization with 90Y in patients with liver malignancy and a history of biliary intervention.

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