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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1059:25-62. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-76735-2_2.

Emerging Concepts in Treating Cartilage, Osteochondral Defects, and Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Ankle.

Pereira H1,2,3,4,5,6, Cengiz IF7,8,9, Vilela C7,8,9, Ripoll PL10,11, Espregueira-Mendes J7,8,12,13,14, Oliveira JM7,8,9,15, Reis RL7,8,9,15, Niek van Dijk C11,9.

Author information

1
Orthopedic Department Centro Hospitalar Póvoa de Varzim, Vila do Conde, Portugal. helderduartepereira@gmail.com.
2
International Centre of Sports Traumatology of the Ave, Taipas, Portugal. helderduartepereira@gmail.com.
3
3B's Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Avepark, Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, Barco, Guimarães, Portugal. helderduartepereira@gmail.com.
4
ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal. helderduartepereira@gmail.com.
5
Ripoll y De Prado Sports Clinic: Murcia - Madrid FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Madrid, Spain. helderduartepereira@gmail.com.
6
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Academic Center for Evidence-Based Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. helderduartepereira@gmail.com.
7
3B's Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Avepark, Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, Barco, Guimarães, Portugal.
8
ICVS/3B's - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal.
9
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Academic Center for Evidence-Based Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
10
International Centre of Sports Traumatology of the Ave, Taipas, Portugal.
11
Ripoll y De Prado Sports Clinic: Murcia - Madrid FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Madrid, Spain.
12
Clínica do Dragão, Espregueira-Mendes Sports Centre - FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Porto, Portugal.
13
Dom Henrique Research Centre, Porto, Portugal.
14
Orthopedic Department, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
15
The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal.

Abstract

The management and treatment of cartilage lesions, osteochondral defects, and osteoarthritis remain a challenge in orthopedics. Moreover, these entities have different behaviors in different joints, such as the knee and the ankle, which have inherent differences in function, biology, and biomechanics. There has been a huge development on the conservative treatment (new technologies including orthobiologics) as well as on the surgical approach. Some surgical development upraises from technical improvements including advanced arthroscopic techniques but also from increased knowledge arriving from basic science research and tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. This work addresses the state of the art concerning basic science comparing the knee and ankle as well as current options for treatment. Furthermore, the most promising research developments promising new options for the future are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Alignment; Autologous osteochondral transplantation; Bone marrow stimulation; Congruency; Surgery; Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

PMID:
29736568
DOI:
10.1007/978-3-319-76735-2_2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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