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Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 Jul;90:294-308. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.05.007. Epub 2018 May 4.

Basal ganglia and beyond: The interplay between motor and cognitive aspects in Parkinson's disease rehabilitation.

Author information

1
Department of Parkinson's Disease, Movement Disorders and Brain Injury Rehabilitation, "Moriggia-Pelascini" Hospital, Via Pelascini, 3, Gravedona ed Uniti, 22015, Como, Italy. Electronic address: davideferrazzoli@gmail.com.
2
Department of Parkinson's Disease, Movement Disorders and Brain Injury Rehabilitation, "Moriggia-Pelascini" Hospital, Via Pelascini, 3, Gravedona ed Uniti, 22015, Como, Italy. Electronic address: paola.ortelli@ospedaledigravedona.it.
3
Department of Parkinson's Disease, Movement Disorders and Brain Injury Rehabilitation, "Moriggia-Pelascini" Hospital, Via Pelascini, 3, Gravedona ed Uniti, 22015, Como, Italy. Electronic address: graziella.madeo@ospedaledigravedona.it.
4
Movement Disorders Unit, Neurological Institute, Tel-Aviv Medical Centre, Sieratzki Chair in Neurology, Sackler School of Medicine, Sagol School for Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. Electronic address: nirg@tlvmc.gov.il.
5
Department of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, United States; Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, United States. Electronic address: petzinge@med.usc.edu.
6
Department of Parkinson's Disease, Movement Disorders and Brain Injury Rehabilitation, "Moriggia-Pelascini" Hospital, Via Pelascini, 3, Gravedona ed Uniti, 22015, Como, Italy. Electronic address: giuseppe.frazzitta@ospedaledigravedona.it.

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunctions, affecting the motor behaviour. We summarize evidence that the interplay between motor and cognitive approaches is crucial in PD rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is complementary to pharmacological therapy and effective in reducing the PD disturbances, probably acting by inducing neuroplastic effects. The motor behaviour results from a complex integration between cortical and subcortical areas, underlying the motor, cognitive and motivational aspects of movement. The close interplay amongst these areas makes possible to learn, control and express habitual-automatic actions, which are dysfunctional in PD. The physiopathology of PD could be considered the base for the development of effective rehabilitation treatments. As the volitional action control is spared in early-medium stages of disease, rehabilitative approaches engaging cognition permit to achieve motor benefits and appear to be the most effective for PD. We will point out data supporting the relevance of targeting both motor and cognitive aspects in PD rehabilitation. Finally, we will discuss the role of cognitive engagement in motor rehabilitation for PD.

KEYWORDS:

Learning, executive functions; Motor-cognitive interplay; Multidisciplinary approach; Parkinson’s disease; Rehabilitation

PMID:
29733882
DOI:
10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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