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Curr HIV Res. 2018;16(2):158-166. doi: 10.2174/1570162X16666180502114344.

Appearance of Drug Resistance Mutations Among the Dominant HIV-1 Subtype, CRF01_AE in Maumere, Indonesia.

Author information

1
Indonesia-Japan Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
2
Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
3
Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hyogo, Japan.
4
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
5
TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere, Indonesia.
6
Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Maumere, a transit city in West Nusa Tenggara, which has a high HIV-1 transmission rate.

METHOD:

We collected 60 peripheral blood samples from 53 ART-experienced and 7 ART-naive individuals at TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere between 2014 and 2015. The amplification and a sequencing analysis of pol genes encoding protease (the PR gene) and reverse transcriptase (the RT gene) as well as the viral env and gag genes were performed. HIV-1 subtyping and the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations were then conducted.

RESULTS:

Among 60 samples, 46 PR, 31 RT, 30 env, and 20 gag genes were successfully sequenced. The dominant HIV-1 subtype circulating in Maumere was CRF01_AE. Subtype B and recombinant viruses containing gene fragments of CRF01_AE, subtypes A, B, C, and/or G were also identified as minor populations. The major drug resistance-associated mutations, M184V, K103N, Y188L, and M230I, were found in the RT genes. However, no major drug resistance-associated mutations were detected in the PR genes.

CONCLUSION:

CRF01_AE was the major HIV-1 subtype prevalent in Maumere. The appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations found in the present study supports the necessity of monitoring the effectiveness of ART in Maumere.

KEYWORDS:

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART); CRF01_AE; HIV-1; Indonesia; Maumere; drug resistance-associated mutations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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