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Oncol Lett. 2018 May;15(5):6931-6940. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8209. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Combined application of Embelin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand inhibits proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma cells via caspase-induced apoptosis.

Author information

1
Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, P.R. China.
2
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Abstract

Embelin, as an inhibitor of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), may induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to determine the effect of Embelin on the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. Embelin and TRAIL were applied to U2OS and MG63 cells, respectively or in combination. MTT was initially used to detect the difference in survival rates between the group receiving combined application of 100 ng/ml TRAIL and 20 µmol/l Embelin and the individual application groups. Light microscopic quantification was used to detect the morphology of the osteosarcoma cells in each group. Determination of cell apoptosis was subsequently performed using flow cytometry. The invasive ability of the cells was detected by a Transwell assay, prior to relative protein expression being determined by western blot analysis. Based on all the test data, it was revealed that the survival rates and the invasive ability were significantly lower following the combined application of 100 ng/ml TRAIL and 20 µmol/l Embelin than following the individual application of either (P<0.01). Additionally, upregulating expression of caspases, as well as death receptor 5, and downregulating expression of XIAP and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), had more significant effects in the combined group compared with the individual group and the control group. All these results suggested that Embelin may enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and inhibit the invasion of human osteosarcoma cells.

KEYWORDS:

Embelin; TRAIL; apoptosis; invasion; osteosarcoma

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