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Exp Neurobiol. 2018 Apr;27(2):77-87. doi: 10.5607/en.2018.27.2.77. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Astrocytes, Microglia, and Parkinson's Disease.

Joe EH1,2,3,4, Choi DJ1,4, An J2, Eun JH2, Jou I1,2,4, Park S1,2,4.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16944, Korea.
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16944, Korea.
3
Department of Brain Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16944, Korea.
4
Chronic Inflammatory Disease Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16944, Korea.

Abstract

Astrocytes and microglia support well-being and well-function of the brain through diverse functions in both intact and injured brain. For example, astrocytes maintain homeostasis of microenvironment of the brain through up-taking ions and neurotransmitters, and provide growth factors and metabolites for neurons, etc. Microglia keep surveying surroundings, and remove abnormal synapses or respond to injury by isolating injury sites and expressing inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, their loss and/or functional alteration may be directly linked to brain diseases. Since Parkinson's disease (PD)-related genes are expressed in astrocytes and microglia, mutations of these genes may alter the functions of these cells, thereby contributing to disease onset and progression. Here, we review the roles of astrocytes and microglia in intact and injured brain, and discuss how PD genes regulate their functions.

KEYWORDS:

Astrocyte; Glia cell; Microglia; Parkinson's disease

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