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J Hazard Mater. 2018 Jul 15;354:81-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.04.064. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Monitoring, mass balance and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in seven wastewater treatment plants in Xiamen City, China.

Author information

1
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100043, China.
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China.
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture, Tarnab, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan.
4
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan.
5
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Department of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.
6
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.
7
CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address: qsun@iue.ac.cn.

Abstract

The occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was investigated in seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Xiamen City, China. Special emphasis was placed on their co-occurrence and the mass balances of both dissolved and adsorbed PPCPs in influent, effluent, and sludge samples. Results showed that PPCPs were widely detected and their co-occurrence was observed both in the wastewater and sludge that can be attributed to either their similar usage or similar physicochemical properties. These results further emphasize that some specific PPCPs have the potential as indicators or surrogate compounds to reduce the number of targeted PPCPs. The occurrence and distribution of PPCPs also showed strong spatial variations, as the PPCP mass loads per inhabitant were positively correlated with the urbanization levels. Both the removal efficiencies of dissolved PPCPs from the aqueous phase and mass loss proportion of the total PPCPs were evaluated and compared. Overall, a measured total amount of 8500 g PPCPs entered the seven WWTPs daily via influent with 6640 g in the dissolved form, while 3450 g left the WWTPs. The large mass loads of antibiotics in the sludge and effluents indicated their potential adverse effects to the receiving environment.

KEYWORDS:

Co-occurrence; Mass balance; PPCPs; Temporal and spatial variations

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